Chemical Development Team

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Part 19: Water Formed Scale

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Apr 12, 2018 8:04:27 AM



Scaling is a common problem frequently encountered in oil and gas production, petroleum refining and other industrial operations where water is encountered or used. Some of the most common scales encountered in the production or refining of oil are calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and barium sulfate. Other less common scales are strontium sulfate, iron (II) carbonate, iron (II) sulfide, Iron (II) hydroxide, iron (III) hydroxide and iron (III) oxide.

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Topics: hydroden sulfide, h2s, water scale, pyrophoric iron

Part 18: Paraffin Deposition Theory and Control

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Dec 20, 2017 9:42:55 AM

Part 18 - Paraffin Deposition Theory and Control


Paraffin separation from crude oil or distilled intermediates produces two detrimental conditions - plugging and increasing energy demand - both of which are costly to the operator.

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Topics: Paraffin

Part 17: Petroleum Refining Catalysis and Deactivation

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Sep 6, 2017 10:17:00 AM


Catalysis plays a key role in petroleum refining as most of the processes beyond the crude unit are catalytic. Since most straight-run fuels produced through fractional distillation do not meet the quality requirements for low-sulfur and higher-octane fuels, most of the crude unit fractions are further processed. Gasoline with anti-knocking characteristics is made with catalytic cracking of heavy hydrocarbons of selective catalysts and zeolites. Gasoline with low aromatic content (benzene/naphthalenes) comes from alkylation of light olefins with isobutane in the presence of hydrogen and metallic catalysts. The catalytic addition of hydrogen to atmospheric tower fractions results in the removal of Sulfur and Nitrogen and unsaturated compounds (olefins) via the Hydrotreating process. Increases in fuel octane numbers come from catalytic reforming and isomerization processes both of which are also catalytic in nature. Upgrading of heavy hydrocarbon streams through hydrocracking into lighter hydrocarbon molecules is catalytic.

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Topics: refining

Part 16: Hydrogen Sulfide Scavenger Technology

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Aug 2, 2017 8:02:00 AM


Hydrogen Sulfide is a toxic, colorless gas that is invisible, explosive, flammable, heavier than air and a leading cause of fatalities in the oil and gas and petrochemical industries. It is formed when organic material decomposes. At low concentrations, it has an offensive odor of rotten eggs. At high concentrations, it deadens your sense of smell. It is corrosive to metals having two active protons making it acidic in nature. It combines with iron to form iron sulfides which are often pyrophoric and can be the cause of fires in processing and storage equipment.

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Topics: Degassing, hydroden sulfide, h2s

Part 15: Foam Cleaning

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Apr 18, 2017 8:00:00 AM



In the previous article we discussed the concept and use of foams as an effective cleaning methodology. Part two is about chemical solvents, inhibitors, foaming agents and other aspects of the foam cleaning methodology.

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Topics: Vapor Phase Degreasing, Foam

Part 14: Foam Cleaning

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Feb 28, 2017 7:00:00 AM



Foam cleaning represents a unique application of a technological extension of conventional chemical cleaning methodology. It is extremely well suited to the cleaning of large volume equipment and structures which are unable to support the weight of conventional liquid solvents. The same solvents used in common liquid-fill cleaning operations are again employed. The major difference is the addition to the liquid solvent of a suitable foaming agent. The surfactant convers stability to the foam which is generated by mixing air with the common solvent.

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Topics: Vapor Phase Degreasing, Foam

Part 13: Catalytic Cracking

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Dec 12, 2016 11:42:43 AM




As the popularity of the automobile increased during the early 1900’s, the demand for the gasoline portion of a barrel of oil proportionally increased. It quickly became apparent that meeting the market demands for straight-run gasoline would result in a glut in the marketplace of the heavier fuel oil crude fractions. In response to how to make use of the heavier hydrocarbon streams to increase the amount of gasoline range product available, several “cracking” techniques were developed. The most popular of the cracking techniques is catalytic (“cat”) cracking.

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Topics: Catalyic Cracking

Part 12: Emulsions and Their Formation

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Aug 3, 2016 10:20:08 AM



Petroleum refining and oil and gas production operations generate both oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These emulsions are present in produced hydrocarbon fluids, drainage water, separator equipment, tank bottoms, and various oil recovery devises. In the petrochemical industry quench waters generated in ethylene and other olefin manufacturing operations may contain various hydrocarbons from heavy to light.

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Topics: emulsions

Part 11: Refinery Catalytic Reactors and Vapor-Phase Degreasing

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Jun 23, 2016 6:00:00 AM




In a previous discussion about Hydrotreating, we talked about the types of fouling present in various parts of the hydrotreater. We did not address the catalytic reactor and cleaning of reactor internals of hydrocarbon liquids and heavier hydrocarbon deposits. 

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Topics: Vapor Phase Degreasing, Hydrotreater, Catalytic Reactors

Part 10: Resins and Polymers in Crude Oil Refining

Posted by Chemical Development Team on Jun 8, 2016 7:30:00 AM



As we have been discussing petroleum refining processes and the various problems that are encountered during decontamination and shut-down preparations, we have taken side trips to talk of related subjects such as pyrophoric iron, degassing and other matters. One of these side discussions was about asphaltenes. Two other constituents of crude oil that have impact on petroleum refining operations are resins and polymers.

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Topics: Degassing, Decontaminanation, Polymers, Resins


This blog serves as a way to share insights into the world of chemistry, and talk about the latest industry news. Our posts are written by our chemical development team.


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